Wednesday, 10 October 2012

Multiplexed transactions in BookSleeve


BookSleeve has now been succeeded by StackExchange.Redis, for lots of reasons. The API and intent is similar, but the changes are significant enough that we had to reboot. All further development will be in StackExchange.Redis, not BookSleeve.


Short version, for the impatient

BookSleeve now has support for transactions using WATCH and pre-conditions. If you don’t know what BookSleeve or redis is, this won’t be of interest to you.


We use redis extensively as part of our caching (and a few other things) technologies at Stack Exchange, and as part of doing that efficiently, we put together BookSleeve, which is a high-performance multiplexer over a redis connection. In English, what that means is: you can share a single redis connection from lots of different threads, and it will worry about delivering the commands efficiently and shipping results back to the appropriate callers, without 200 commands having to pay the penalty of 200 latency. Redis even includes transaction support for complex operations, however, previously I’ve always been a bit stumped how to fit this into BookSleeve…

How do transactions work in redis?

You see, redis transactions are not like SQL transactions. A transaction is defined by a MULTIEXEC block, with everything between the MULTI and the EXEC being processed as a single atomic unit (meaning: redis doesn’t process any requests from other connections during that time - don’t worry if that sounds draconian, redis manages extraordinarily well on a single thread anyway). That’s pretty easy to fit into a multiplexer, as we can just have a structure to buffer up commands, and send them when complete – so that already exists in BookSleeve:

using (var tran = conn.CreateTransaction()) 
tran.Strings.Set(0, "foo", "abc");
tran.Strings.Set(0, "bar", "def");

But here’s the gotcha: between the MULTI and the EXEC, you don’t get results – you only get results when you commit the transaction. This means that you can’t easily request information in the middle of a transaction and then make a decision on that for what you do next – which makes a lot of sense really, since while you’re doing that thinking and network-IO, every other connection would be stalled. A sane decision really.

To get around this limitation, redis transactions actually allow a bit more cleverness… you can issue a WATCH command against keys of your choice, and then if somebody changes that key, your transaction automatically gets killed. So, a typical cycle might be:

WATCH SomeKeyName
GET SomeKeyName
{some test on the value back in your client code, then}
SET SomeKeyName SomeNewValue
{or if you decided you didn't like it after all}

And importantly, because of the WATCH, if another connection comes along and changes SomeKeyName, then the EXEC does nothing, and returns a reply that robustly indicates the cancellation. This actually allows a lot of very subtle usage, while allowing everything to happen at the server as a single unit of work.

So what is the problem? And what did you do?

The painful bit here is simply: WATCH doesn’t work in a multiplexer. As soon as one caller issues a WATCH, either you need to stop accepting work from other callers, or you now have no idea what each caller thinks it is watching (which is very important). Another approach would be to somehow have the user write callbacks that happen as part of a transaction, but what I absolutely don’t want to do is expose anything in BookSleeve that inadvertently allow one caller to break everybody, by being too slow – so callbacks: not really an option. So for a long time, BookSleeve only made use of WATCH etc internally, and didn’t expose it to the caller. But that has finally changed!

I’ve just committed my first stab at improving this, basically by implementing a number of pre-canned pre-conditions that can be enforced on a transaction. The “pre-canned” is there to avoid the issue of opening up massive performance issues, but in reality they are very simple. For example, a previous internal usage of WATCH was to take an exclusive lock (by marking a key as in-use). Until today, that was about 100 lines of complex code that needed to know about the full gory details of the redis protocol – where-as now it is just:

TaskCompletionSource<bool> result = new TaskCompletionSource<bool>();

using (var tran = CreateTransaction())
tran.AddCondition(Condition.KeyNotExists(db, key));
tran.Strings.Set(db, key, value, expirySeconds);
return result.Task;

where takeLockContinuation is just a static delegate instance that take the Task<bool> result from the Execute call, and sets that into result (plus handling task faults, cancellation, etc). Crucially, the condition (Condition.KeyNotExists in this case) takes care of both the WATCH steps, and the actual validation / enforcement. Basically, if there are pre-conditions (there can be multiple), then they are all sent to the server, and only if they all return the expected results is the MULTI / EXEC block sent – otherwise an UNWATCH is sent instead. Simple, elegant (IMO), and efficient.

The available pre-conditions are pretty limited at the moment, but I’ll try to add all the obvious ones I can think of (exists/not-exists for keys/hashes, equals/not-equals for keys/hashes, maybe a few inequalities, maybe something involving ttl). But finally I have a WATCH implementation that isn’t entirely sucky for a multiplexer. At the moment this is in the code repository only; I'll push to NuGet when I have a few more pre-conditions implemented.

Thursday, 6 September 2012

Iterator blocks, missing methods, and .NET 4.5

We had some fun a while ago where we had a flurry of MissingMethodException occurring on some boxes, in particular, complaining that Environment.CurrentManagedThreadId was missing. And sure enough, this is a 4.5 method, and the affected servers were 4.0 – so it was kinda valid, but completely unexpected. At the time, our most pragmatic option was just: deploy 4.5, but we’ve finally had time to go back and understand it!

This happened after we upgraded our build server to 4.5, for some initial 4.5 usage – but all our core projects were still 4.0 at the time.

Fix first:


These are typically somewhere like:

C:\Program Files (x86)\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\Framework\.NETFramework\v4.0

Now, the full story:

fact 1: 4.5 is an in-place over-the-top install on top of 4.0, in the GAC; once you have installed 4.5, 4.0 runs with the 4.5 assemblies

fact 2: if your build server doesn’t have the reference assemblies, it looks in the GAC – so… once you’ve installed 4.5, it will get 4.5 even if you asked (in your project) for 4.0

fact 3: the c# compiler has a detail relating to iterator blocks (aka "yield return" and "yield break") that involves threading, i.e. "which thread am I?"

fact 4: the implementation for this changes between 4.0 and 4.5; in 4.0, it uses (in the generated iterator-type’s constructor) Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId – but in 4.5 it uses Environment.CurrentManagedThreadId; it makes this decision based on the framework version it finds it has loaded (taking into account targeting etc)

Put these pieces together, and you can get a scenario where a 4.0 project that uses 4.0-only methods, seems to build successfully, but builds in a way that will only work on 4.5; it will never work on 4.0.

Fun fun fun!

Friday, 17 August 2012

Taking meta-programming beyond crazy

Firstly, a brief note that protobuf-net is up to r580 now, on both nuget and google-code; mainly small tweaks while I build up enough energy to tackle a few larger pieces (some knotty interface / dynamic / base-class improvements are next on the list)

Pushing both ends

Aimed to time with the .NET 4.5 release (and perhaps more notably, the .NETCore and .NETPortable profiles), I’ve recently spent a lot of time on meta-programming, culminating in the new precompiler that allows these slimmed down and highly restrictive frameworks to still have fast serialization (static IL, etc).

While there, I set myself a silly stretch goal; for the main purpose simply of to see if I could do it – which was: to get the whole shabang working on .NET 1.1 too. This would give me a fair claim to supporting the entire .NET framework. So, for a bit of reminiscing – what does that need?


Generics were introduced in .NET 2. v1 of protobuf-net made massive usage of generics; so much so that it actually killed the runtime on some platforms (see here, here and here). So removing most of the generics was already a primary design goal in v2.

Perhaps the most significant problem I hit here was trying to decide on a core collection type for the internal state. As it turns out, there’s no free lunch here; there is no collection type that is common to all frameworks – some don’t have ArrayList. In the end, I wrote my own simple collection – not just for this, but also because I wanted a collection that was thread-safe for iterations competing with appends (iterators only read what existed when it started iterators).


You’d be amazed what you miss when you try to design something to compile on down-level compilers. For a dare, go into project-properties, the “Build” tab, and click “Advanced…” – and change the “Language Version” to something like ISO-1 (C# 1.2) or ISO-2 (C# 2.0) – see what breaks. Obviously you expect generics to disappear, but you also lose partial methods, partial classes, iterator blocks, lambdas, extension methods, null-coalescing, static classes, etc – and just some technically legal syntax that the early compilers simply struggle with. protobuf-net is configured to build in ISO-2 in the IDE, but with #if-regions to rip out the last few generics in the .NET 1.1 build. Writing iterator blocks… not fun.


There’s a silly number of variances in the core BCL between different frameworks; even things like string.IsNullOrEmpty or StringBuilder.AppendLine() aren’t all-encompassing. I ended up with a utility class with a decent number of methods to hide the differences (behind yet more #if-regions). But by far the craziest problem: reflection. And protobuf-net, at least in “Full” mode (see here for an overview of “CoreOnly” vs “Full”), uses plenty of reflection. Oddly enough, the reflection in .NET 1.1 isn’t bad – sure, it would be nice to have DynamicMethod, but I can live without it. Getting this working on .NET 1.1 was painless compared to .NETCore.

Aside / rant: how much do I hate “.GetTypeInfo()” on .NETCore? With the fiery rage of 2 stars slowly crashing into each-other. Oh, I’m sure that the differences to Type / TypeInfo make perfect sense for application-developers in .NETCore, who probably should be limiting their use of reflection, but for library authors: this change really, really hurts. The one things that lets me keep civil about this change is that in “CoreOnly” + “precompiler” we do all the reflection work up-front using the regular reflection API, so for me at least most of this ugly is just a cruel artefact. But still: grrrrrrrrrrrrrr.


There are a number of opcodes that simply don’t exist back on 1.1; if I’ve done my compare correctly, this is: Unbox_Any, Readonly, Constrained, Ldelem and Stelem. The good news is that most of these exist only to support generics, and are pretty easy to substitute if you know that you aren’t dealing with generics.

Metadata Version

.NET 1.1 uses an earlier version of the metadata packaging format than all the others use. This is yet another thing that the inbuilt Reflection.Emit can’t help, but - my new favorite metaprogramming tool to the rescue: IKVM.Reflection supports this. I have to offer yet another thanks to Jeroen Frijters who showed me the correct incantations to make things happy: beyond the basics of IKVM, the key part here is a voodoo call to IKVM’s implementation of AssemblyBuilder:

asm.__SetImageRuntimeVersion("v1.1.4322", 0x10000);

The 0x10000 here is a magic number that specifies the .NET 1.1 metadata format. For reference, 0x20000 is the version you want the rest of the time. As always, IKVM.Reflection seems to have considered everything; it is the gold standard of assembly writing tools. Awesome job, Jeroen. I jokingly half-expect to find that Roslyn has a a reference to IKVM.Reflection ;p

Putting the pieces together

But! Once you’ve dealt with all those trivial problems; it works. I’m happy to say that protobuf-net now has “CoreOnly” and “Full” builds, and support from “precompiler”. So if you still have .NET 1.1 applications (and I promise not to judge you… much), you can now use protobuf-net with as many optimizations as it is capable of. Which is cute:

C:\SomePath>AnotherPath\precompile.exe Net11_Poco.dll -o:MyCrazy.dll -t:MySerializer

protobuf-net pre-compiler
Detected framework: C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322
Resolved C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322\mscorlib.dll
Resolved C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322\System.dll
Resolved protobuf-net.dll
Adding DAL.DatabaseCompat...
Resolved C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322\System.Xml.dll
Adding DAL.DatabaseCompatRem...
Adding DAL.OrderCompat...
Adding DAL.OrderLineCompat...
Adding DAL.VariousFieldTypes...
Compiling MySerializer to MyCrazy.dll...
All done

C:\SomePath>peverify MyCrazy.dll

Microsoft (R) .NET Framework PE Verifier Version 1.1.4322.573
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation 1998-2002. All rights reserved.

All Classes and Methods in MyCrazy.dll Verified

In case it isn’t obvious, “Net11_Poco.dll” is a .NET 1.1 dll created in Visual Studio 2003; “precompiler” has then detected the 1.1-ness, bound IKVM to the .NET 1.1 framework, and compiled a protobuf-net custom serializer for that model, as a legal .NET 1.1 dll.

Questionable sanity

Another way of reading all this is: I’ve possibly now crossed the line between “eccentric” and “batshit crazy”. I don’t have a need to use .NET 1.1, but I would be overjoyed if someone else gets some genuine usage out of this. Mainly, I just wanted to learn some things, challenge myself, and take a bit of professional pride in doing something fully and properly – just because: I can.

Monday, 16 July 2012

Introducing the protobuf-net precompiler

Over the last few posts (here and here) I’ve given a few hints as to compiling for other platforms. Basically, this all relates to how well protobuf-net works on platforms like iOS, WinRT/Metro, Silverlight, Phone 7, etc. These heavily restricted runtimes don’t allow much meta-programming, and they might be running on low-power CPUs, so reflection (even if possible) is not ideal.

I’ve played with assembly generation before, but with mixed results. For example, here for Phone 7. This could just about work for some frameworks, but was patchy on some, and won’t work at all for others.

Well, all that IKVM shininess has opened up a whole new set of tools. The small beauty that I’m ridiculously pleased with is a new utility exe in the SVN trunk (will be part of a proper release soon): precompile.

This unassuming little tool works a bit like “sgen”, but with the ability to target multiple frameworks. What it does is:

  • inspect the input assembly (or assemblies) to resolve (if it can) the target framework
  • initialize an IKVM universe targeting that framework
  • load the core framework libraries, protobuf-net, and the input assemblies into the IKVM universe
  • scan the input assemblies for types marked [ProtoContract]
  • add those to a protobuf-net model
  • compile the model to a type / assembly of your choosing

To use that in a project you might:

  • create a new DTO project in your chosen framework, and compile it
  • execute precompile to generate to a serializer assembly
  • from your application project, reference the DTO and serializer assemblies
  • use the type you created

For example, say I create a new Phone 7 DTO assembly, called PhoneDto (because it is late and I lack imagination). I can then create a serialization assembly via:

precompile {some path}\PhoneDto.dll –o:PhoneSerializer.dll –t:MySerializer

This will generate a library called PhoneSerializer.dll, which you can reference from your main project (in addition to the DTO and the protobuf-net core).

Then, just use MySerializer:

var ser = new MySerializer();
ser.Serialize(output, obj);

I hope this finally solves a number of tooling issues. I’m pretty pleased with it. I’ve tested it against a range of different frameworks, and it has worked well – but if you get problems, just let me know (comment here, or email me, or log an issue on the protobuf-net project site).

Saturday, 14 July 2012

Enter the IKVM

aka Meta-programming and Metro for .NET

In my previous blog entry I gave an overview of how protobuf-net is arranged internally, and hinted that it all falls apart for Metro. So: what goes wrong? Currently, protobuf-net has a lot (and I do mean a lot) of code built on top of ILGenerator, the reflection class that underpins meta-programming. This class is great for hardcore library builders: you can build individual methods (via DynamicMethod) or entire assemblies (via AssemblyBuilder). It is very low level, since you are writing raw IL – but I’m not completely crazy, so I wrap that up in some utility methods. There are a few problem., though:

  • ILGenerator usually expects be be working on the current framework
  • Even though you can use a “reflection only load”, this still fails horribly for System.Runtime.dll (aka Metro for .NET)
  • In early versions of .NET (and I try to support .NET 2 and upwards), the ability to properly inspect attribute data against reflection-only types/members (GetCustomAttributesData) is simply missing

So… basically, it all falls to pieces for generating as assembly targeting Metro for .NET, based on a Metro for .NET input assembly.

What I would need is some kind of utility that is:

  • Broadly similar to Reflection.Emit, so I don’t have to rewrite a few thousand lines of code (since I want to keep that code for the runtime meta-programming on full .NET)
  • Able to load and work with alternative frameworks without getting confused
  • Able to give full attribute information, even on .NET 2
  • Inbuilt or free, to match the existing license

Who would go to the trouble of writing such a thing?

Maybe somebody who is already writing compiler-like tools that aren’t tied to a specific framework, and who has run into the existing limitations of Reflection.Emit? Maybe somebody writing a Java/.NET bridge? Like IKVM.NET ?

Actually, for my purposes I don’t need most of IKVM. I just need one tiny piece of it: IKVM.Reflection. This library was specifically written to mimic the existing Reflection.Emit API, but without all the problems. In particular, it has a Universe class that is a bit like an AppDomain; you load assemblies into a Universe, and that is what is used for resolution etc after that. Here’s a simple example – which will immediately make sense to anyone used to Reflection.Emit – or another example specifically targeting Metro for .NET. The nice thing about the API is that mostly I can change between IKVM and Reflection.Emit via a simple:

using Type = IKVM.Reflection.Type;
using IKVM.Reflection;
using System.Reflection;

OK, I would be grossly exaggerating if I claimed that was the only change I had to make, but that’s the most demonstrable bit. What this means is that just for my cross-platform compiler, everything in the Model, Strategy and Compiler modules (see previous blog) switches to IKVM terminology. The Core still uses System terminology, and the Runtime doesn’t apply (I obviously can’t instantiate/execute types/methods from another framework, even if I can inspect them).

With this technique, I can now successfully load a Metro for .NET assembly (such as a DTO), and generate a fully static-compiled assembly (“Standalone” on the diagram) targeting Metro for .NET. No reflection at runtime, no nasty hacks – just: an assembly that wasn’t generated by the MS tools.

I’m still working on turning this into a slicker tool (comparable to, say, SGEN), but a working illustration is in the repo; in particular, see MetroDTO (some sample DTOs), TestIkvm (my proof-of-concept compiler hard-coded to MetroDTO), and Metro_DevRig (which shows the generated assembly working in a Metro for .NET application, including performance comparisons to XmlSerializer and DataContractSerializer).

Additionally, it seems extremely likely that the same tool should be able to write platform-targeted assemblies for Silverlight, Phone 7, XNA, CF, etc. Which is nice.

Thanks and Acknowledgements

I’m hugely indebted to Jeroen Frijters in all of this; both for providing IKVM.Reflection, and for his direct and very prompt assistance when playing with all the above. Mainly for correcting my own brain-dead mistakes, but also for a very quick bug-fix when needed. The library is awesome, thanks.

(as a small caveat, note that protobuf-net is currently exposing a locally built version of IKVM.Reflection; this will be rectified after the next dev build of IKVM)

Friday, 13 July 2012

Some internals of protobuf-net

This post is a bit of background explanation for my next, much more interesting (IMO) post. But in order for that one to make sense without being too long, I wanted to talk about the “what?” and “why?” first, and then discuss the “how?” after. Make sense?

First, I’ll whet your appetite with this:


This is protobuf-net running nice and fast (much faster than XmlSerializer or DataContractSerializer) on .NET for Metro style apps. Which is a pretty neat trick, because Metro doesn’t allow any of the usual tricks that protobuf-net uses.

So what does it use?

A walkthrough of protobuf-net

imageThe first piece of protobuf-net is the core – this is basically the fundamental reader/writer API (think: XmlReader/XmlWriter), and some utility methods. Every build of protobuf-net includes the core, although many parts may have different implementations on a per-platform basis.


Next we have the model; this is where the user defines the types that are going to be serialized by the model. In many cases, the model is populated automatically as you serialize items (it figures out what is needed). The model doesn’t know how to do anything – it only knows the configuration.


Next comes the strategy; a series of decorators and other structures that turn that configuration into something resembling a sensible way to handle, each configuration, building from simpler steps.


And then given a strategy, we need some mechanism to implement that strategy. A simple option is reflection, which is convenient and available on most platforms, but comparatively slow.


A much more elegant approach is to use meta-programming to turn a strategy into regular IL code. This is pretty complex, but leads to very fast results. Unfortunately, a lot of light-weight platforms do not allow this.


Which is a shame, because once you have a working compiler, you can go so far as to generate (via a utility exe at build time) a standalone serialization assembly, which then doesn’t need to do any thinking at runtime.


In fact, if you do this you don’t even need anything else – just the core and a serialization assembly. This technique allows you to generate, with a little voodoo, a pair of small assemblies that can be used on platforms such as MonoTouch, as described here.

So you just did that, right? Doesn’t sound too bad…

You’d think so, wouldn’t you? Unfortunately, there’s a stumbling block. Generating a standalone assembly is … complex. It only works on full .NET for starters, but also: Reflection.Emit only works with full .NET assemblies. You can’t load your Metro DTO into regular .NET, spin up a TypeBuilder, and run with it; a: you won’t be able to load the types correctly (since your Metro DTO targets an entirely different framework), and b: what you generate won’t be convincing as a Metro dll. We get away with it for MonoTouch, but that is just because the Xamarin folks are evil geniuses.

What we need, then, is some way of generating a Metro serialization dll, after inspecting a Metro DTO dll, but presumably as a build tool running on regular .NET. That, as they say, gets tricky. And that is for next time.

Tuesday, 12 June 2012

The question I was asked at DDD South West…

…about 20 times during and after my last presentation sessions had nothing to do with my content. I am choosing (hoping?) to believe that this is because I articulated myself so clearly and accurately.

No, the question everyone asked me was:

What was putting those method-end markers in the IDE?



Well, I didn’t want to mess around with my laptop too much at the event, as I had a re-run session later that day. The first rule of presenting: don’t mess around with your laptop just before you present!

But – I finally tracked it down; this is VSCommands “Enable Code Block End Tagger”. It comes with cute options too, for example: to only display the end tag when the start is not visible (which you can see above – no noise is added for the constructor or indexer, since you can see the start and end at the same time).

It’s a nice tool, and it has VS 2012 support already, apparently (I haven’t had time to test it). Heck, how many IDE tools do you know that have an option to display your stackoverflow reputation and recent activity? (this is not a joke). Or more importantly, has a tool to stop the annoying “drag/drop a file in solution explorer, when I clearly didn’t intend to totally and utterly shaft the solution” (they call it by a different name, but that’s what I would have called it).

(anti-disclosure; no I don’t get anything from them for saying that it is a good tool – it just is)

Monday, 6 February 2012

Abstractions are only a tool; you don’t need to be

Abstractions abstractions abstractions. IAbstraction and AbstractionFactory.

Ah, joy.

I get very very confused when I see people saying things like “but it must be done via EF” (substitute EF for any other tool), when the thing they are trying to do is clearly not suited to the abstraction.

Abstractions, as tools, are simply a way of reducing the overhead / complexity of doing something specific (managing the relationship between objects and a database in the case of EF). Sometimes they are fairly tight; sometimes they are leaky. But; to use any abstraction, it is absolutely critical to be aware of two related things:

  • where the limits of the abstraction end
  • how the underlying “thing” works

I get so weary of people using things like EF in the hope that they then “don’t need to learn SQL”. This is a false and destructive aim. You, as a professional developer, wouldn’t try to write a web-page without knowing at least the fundamentals of html and css? Would you? Really?

In the same way; occasionally, a tool simply isn’t aimed at the job you want to do. If you want to avoid pain, you need to recognise this as soon as possible. I’ve seen some horrible horrible ugliness intended to strong-arm an existing tool to do something that it didn’t want to. In most cases, simply using a different tool for that piece (yes, you are allowed to use more than one), or writing the code directly, would have been simpler, less buggy, and wouldn’t take a great big core-dump all over your shiny code. Code matters; don’t contaminate it.

[end rant]

Thursday, 12 January 2012

Playing with your member

(and: introducing FastMember)

Toying with members. We all do it. Some do it slow, some do it fast.

I am of course talking about the type of flexible member access that you need regularly in data-binding, materialization, and serialization code – and various other utility code.


Here’s standard member access:

Foo obj = GetStaticTypedFoo();
obj.Bar = "abc";

Not very exciting, is it? Traditional static-typed C# is very efficient here when everything is known at compile-time. With C# 4.0, we also get nice support for when the target is not known at compile time:

dynamic obj = GetDynamicFoo();
obj.Bar = "abc";

Looks much the same, eh? But what about when the member is not known? What we can’t do is:

dynamic obj = GetStaticTypedFoo();
string propName = "Bar";
obj.propName = "abc"; // does not do what we intended!

So, we find ourselves in the realm of reflection. And as everyone knows, reflection is slooooooooow. Or at least, it is normally; if you don’t object to talking with Cthulhu you can get into the exciting realms of meta-programming with tools like Expression or ILGenerator – but most people like keeping hold of their sanity, so… what to do?


A few years ago, I threw together HyperDescriptor; this is a custom implementation of the System.ComponentModel representation of properties, but using some IL instead of reflection – significantly faster. It is a good tool – a worthy tool; but… I just can’t get excited about it now, for various reasons, but perhaps most importantly:

  • the weirdness that is System.ComponentModel is slowly fading away into obscurity
  • it does not really address the DLR

Additionally, I’ve seen a few bug reports since 4.0, and frankly I’m not sure it is quite the right tool now. Fixing it is sometimes a bad thing.

Having written tools like dapper-dot-net and protobuf-net, my joy of meta-programming has grown. Time to start afresh!


So with gleaming eyes and a bottle of Chilean to keep the evil out, I whacked together a fresh library; FastMember – available on google-code and nuget. It isn’t very big, or very complex – it simply aims to solve two scenarios:

  • reading and writing properties and fields (known by name at runtime) on a set of homogeneous (i.e. groups of the same type) objects
  • reading and writing properties and fields (known by name at runtime) on an individual object, which might by a DLR object

Here’s some typical usage (EDITED - API changes):

var accessor = TypeAccessor.Create(type);
string propName = // something known only at runtime
while( /* some loop of data */ ) {
accessor[obj, propName] = rowValue;


// could be static or DLR
var wrapped = ObjectAccessor.Create(obj);
string propName = // something known only at runtime

Nothing hugely exciting, but it comes up often enough (especially with the DLR aspect) to be worth putting somewhere reusable. It might also serve as a small but complete example for either meta-programming (ILGenerator etc), or manual DLR programming (CallSite etc).

Mary Mary quite contrary, how does your member perform?

So let’s roll some numbers; I’m bundling read and write together here for brevity, but - based on 1M reads and 1M writes of a class with an auto-implemented string property:

Static C#: 14ms
Dynamic C#: 268ms
PropertyInfo: 8879ms
PropertyDescriptor: 12847ms
TypeAccessor.Create: 73ms
ObjectAccessor.Create: 92ms

As you can see, it somewhat stomps on both reflection (PropertyInfo) and System.ComponentModel (PropertyDescriptor), and isn't very far from static-typed C#. Furthermore, both APIs work (as mentioned) with DLR types, which is cute - becaues frankly they are a pain to talk to manually. It also supports fields (vs. properties) and structs (vs. classes, although only for read operations).

That's all; I had some fun writing it; I hope some folks get some use out of it.